An accident victim named Roland Reeves of Fortsville Ward, St. John River City in Grand Bassa County is crying for help to restore his health and family survival.Explaining his ordeal, Mr. Reaves told the Daily Observer in an exclusive interview that he and other passengers escaped death when a truck marked BT-3532 hit and destroyed his taxi cab marked TX-2069 recently.As a result of the accident, his car is beyond repair, while the driver of the truck, not named, escaped and has not been seen since July 4, 2014.According to Mr. Reeves, the truck hit and turned his car over as he was making a u-turn to Hartford Old Road from Buchanan while the truck was also recklessly plying in the same direction.According to Mr. Reeves, the police officers of the National Police Traffic Division of Grand Bassa went on the accident scene and took the diagram.Since then the traffic police have done nothing. He said they have only told him that they have not yet found either the driver nor the owner of the truck.Mr. Reeves said the car was the only source of income to cater to the well-being of his family, especially his school going children.He narrated that since his car got damaged beyond repair, even though no one was killed, yet he had treated those injured including himself, at his personal expense. He has thus been finding it very difficult to maintain his family.His children, he said, have not been able to go to school due to the lack of finance and other means of support to sustain them.He is therefore appealing to the police, county authorities, headed by Superintendent Etweda Cooper, and the county Legislative Caucus to sell the truck so he can buy another car to sustain his family.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Russian based Liberian attacker Sylvanus Nimely of Spartak Moskva II (Photo credit: Spartak Moskva II)Several foreign based Liberian soccer players over the weekend featured for their respective clubs across the globe with Russian based Sylvanus Nimely and United States based Seku Conneh registering their names on the score sheet for their clubs.It was Russian based Sylvanus Nimely of Spartak Moskva II that got the curtain raiser for his side after he last scored a goal in April against Spartak Nal’chik after slotting home the late equalizer in the 71st minute when both sides settled to a 1-1 draw.Over the weekend, the 19-year-old, who has so far made 11 appearances for Spartak Moskva II this season, got the first goal for his team in the 39th minute after defeating Volgar Astrakhan 3-1 in their away fixture.Moskva II went down in the 13th minute before the young Liberian attacker got the equalizer to put his team in their goal scoring form. Moskva II is currently seated 8th place with 26 points out of 16 games in the Russian FNL.Also Yesterday in the United Soccer League in the US, 21-year-old Seku Conneh scored the lone goal for his side Bethlehem Steel after they drew with Tampa Bay Rowdies 1-1 at the Al Lang Stadium in St. Petersburg, Florida. The goal was his second consecutive against the club after he scored against them last week in a 2-2 draw. Still in the United Soccer League, another Liberian attacker Mawolo Gissie, 20, was also featured for his club Sacramento Republic FC after he was introduced in the 90+2 minutes in his side’s 2-0 win over Phoenix Rising.Other players including Archie Harvey of Swedish Division 1 club Arameiska, William Jebor of Al Nassr in Saudi Arabia, and Theo Weeks of Ermis in Cyprus featured for their respective clubs, but did not get their names on the score sheet.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Bayern head coach Jupp Heynckes rang the changes from Tuesday’s 3-1 win at home to Paris Saint-Germain in the Champions League, starting midweek goalscorers Robert Lewandowski and Corentin Tolisso on the bench.The biggest shock however was that third-choice goalkeeper Tom Starke, who had been working in Bayern’s academy after retiring last season.The 36-year-old was thrown into the fray after Sven Ulreich, who has played in place of Manuel Neuer since the Germany captain fractured his foot in September, injured his groin in the warm-up.“I have been doing this for a few years and the juices are still flowing,” said Starke, who came out of retirement in September and was named in the club’s Champions League squad.Frankfurt made a bright start, but Bayern grabbed what proved to be the winner on 20 minutes.Joshua Kimmich swung in a cross which found Vidal unmarked at the back post to score to decisive goal.Having already picked up a first-half yellow card, Vidal narrowly escaped a red card after fouling Marius Wolf with just under 40 minutes left and Heynkes hauled him off soon after.– Leipzig leak late goal –Bayern extended their lead at the top of the Bundesliga after RB Leipzig conceded a late equaliser in their 2-2 draw at home to Mainz, whose replacement striker Emil Berggreen equalised three minutes from time.Mainz’ forward Emil Berggreen equalised three minutes from time against RB Leipzig © AFP / ROBERT MICHAELThe hosts took the lead at Leipzig’s Red Bull Arena when midfielder Kevin Kampl fired home on 29 minutes, but Mainz equalised ten minutes later when Robin Quaison slotted home a rebound from a parried free-kick.Germany striker Timo Werner restored Leipzig’s lead in the third minute of first-half stoppage time with a controversial penalty.The decision was backed up by the VAR after Diego Demme went down in the area, but replays showed there was only the faintest of touches from Mainz defender Leon Balogun.The incident lingered and Mainz’s disgruntled coach Sandro Schwarz was sent to the stands for the final 15 minutes before Berggreen’s late header.Third-placed Schalke later missed the chance to go second when they drew 1-1 at Borussia Moenchengladbach, who are fourth, as Thorgan Hazard cancelled out Christoph Kramer’s first-half strike for the hosts at Borussia Park.– Dortmund crash again –Former league leaders Dortmund dropped out of the top six for the first time this season after crashing 2-1 at home to strugglers Werder Bremen.Bremen’s midfielder Maximilian Eggestein and forward Max Kruse celebrate scoring © DPA/AFP / Ina FassbenderDortmund are without a win in their last eight league games and the defeat could well be the last for head coach Peter Bosz.“The first half was really bad and I am the one responsible for it. The disappointment is very deep,” said the glum-faced Dutchman.Bremen went ahead when Germany Under-21 midfielder Maximilian Eggestein fired home unmarked at the edge of the area on 26 minutes.Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang brought the hosts back on level terms when he bundled home Shinji Kagawa’s 57th-minute cross, which appeared to hit the arm of defender Philipp Bargfrede.But Bremen restored their lead eight minutes later when a header from Czech defender Theodor Gebre Selassie hit the boot of Dortmund goalkeeper Roman Burki on its way into the net.Kagawa wasted a to equalise for Dortmund with 15 minutes left when he fired over with the goal at his mercy after Aubameyang had slipped over.Hamburg stay three points clear of the relegation places after their goalless draw at home to mid-table Wolfsburg.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000Bayern Munich’s midfielder Arturo Vidal (L) celebrates after scoring against Frankfurt © AFP / Daniel ROLANDBerlin, Germany, Dec 9 – Arturo Vidal’s fourth goal in as many league games shot Bayern Munich to a 1-0 win at Eintracht Frankfurt and an eight-point lead at the top of the Bundesliga on Saturday.Bayern’s win means that they cannot be caught before the winter break, which starts on December 17, and makes them ‘Herbstmeister’ (Autumn champions) for the seventh season in a row.
3. Germany v Netherlands – Rooted in the Dutch’s anti-German resentment following Germanys five-year occupation of Holland during the Second World War, the hatred between these two sides can be summarised by Dutch midfielder Wim Van Hanegem before their 1974 World Cup final match against West Germany. I dont give a damn about the score They murdered my family. The much-favoured Dutch went on to lose that final 2-1 which became known in the Netherlands as De moeder aller nederlagen The mother of all defeats. In Euro 1980 the game saw German goalkeeper Toni Schumacher and Hollands Huub Stevens fighting on the pitch before Rene van de Kerkhof punched Bernd Schuster in the eye as West Germany won 3-2. But perhaps the biggest flashpoint on the pitch came in their meeting in the 1990 World Cup. Germany again won 2-1, but the match is remembered for Dutch midfielder Frank Rijkaard spitting into the mullet of Germanys Rudi Völler twice, once after both players had been sent off (pictured above). 9 9 1. Argentina v Brazil – With seven World Cups between them, this is an intense rivalry between two of the most successful football nations ever. But despite boasting some of the worlds best players, the Battles of South America are often memorable for far more infamous reasons. In 1937 the Brazilian team were forced to leave a Copa America game, fearing for their safety from Argentine fans and in a 1939 game, when Brazil were awarded a controversial penalty, the entire Argentine team left the field before the final whistle. Seven years later a South American Championship meeting descended into farce following a fight involving both players and spectators. In recent games, Diego Maradona was shown red in the 1982 World Cup after kicking Brazils Joao Batista and in Italia ’90, Argentinas 1-0 victory was marred by accusations from the Brazilian team that their water had been spiked with tranquilisers, a claim which was later confirmed by Maradona (pictured above celebrating in a Brazil shirt after the match). 9 9 5. France v Italy – France and Italy have met consistently in big games. Italy enjoyed the lions share of victories early on, but since the 1980s the French have had the better of their rivals and one notable win included beating Italy on penalties en route to winning the 1998 World Cup at a time when much of the French team played in Serie A. France also won in the most dramatic fashion against Italy in the Euro 2000 final with a David Trezeguet golden goal. But undoubtedly the most notorious moment in the rivalry came during the 2006 World Cup final. Having scored a penalty in the first half, France captain Zinedine Zidane was sent off (pictured above) after he head butted Italys Marco Materazzi. Italy went on to win on penalties and after the match rumours swirled that Materazzi had insulted Zidanes family. The moment is now permanently cast in bronze in a 16-foot tall statue. 9 6. Croatia v Serbia – As a result of troubles off the pitch, subsequent matches between these two sides are politically charged affairs fraught with tension from both sets of fans. The countries have only met a few times on the pitch; the first was a goalless draw in 1999 that was marred by riots, political protests and an eventual power outage. Serbia, as an independent nation after Montenegro gained independence, met Croatia in qualifying for the 2014 World Cup with away fans banned for both games. Some Croatian fans (pictured above) were reported to chant, Kill the Serbs as their team won 2-0 and in the return match, Croatias Josip Simunic scythed down Serbias Miralem Sulejmani in one of the worst tackles in history. By Robert CottinghamGermany take on the Netherlands in a friendly in Hannover, pitting two of football’s biggest rivals against one another again.Here, talkSPORT looks at where this game ranks among other fiery internationals.Click the arrow above, right, to see more. 4. England v Scotland – England and Scotland contested the very first international fixture in 1872 and like many of the greatest football rivalries, it is a bitterness born out of both historical context and geographical proximity. The two teams regularly met in the now-defunct Home Championship until 1984 and in one memorable match following a 3-2 Scotland win at Wembley in 1977, Scottish fans invaded the pitch, ripping up turf and bringing down the goalposts. They have met only a handful of times since the 1990s and games are always highly anticipated by both sets of fans. A meeting between the two at Euro 1996 was lit up by a Paul Gascoigne wonder goal (pictured above) and following a Euro 2000 play-off match, crowd trouble spilled over into clashes in Glasgow city centre resulting in more than 50 arrests. And the rivalry will be renewed as the teams were drawn together for World Cup 2018 qualification. 9 9 7. Denmark v Sweden – Denmark and Sweden are two countries whose rivalry is centuries old, with 27 Dano-Swedish wars between 1521 and 1814. On the field, in the two were drawn in the same group for Euro 2008 qualifying and in the first match Denmark staged a remarkable comeback, drawing level after being 3-0 down. But the game descended into anarchy as Denmarks Christian Poulsen was sent off by referee Herbert Fandel for hitting Swedens Markus Rosenberg. Just before the resulting penalty, a Danish fan invaded the pitch and tried to punch Fandel (pictured above). The match was abandoned; awarded 3-0 to Sweden and saw Denmark forbidden from playing their next two matches in Copenhagen. 9. England v Germany – With bitter rivals Germany and Netherlands playing a ‘friendly’ in Hannover, talkSPORT looks at where their rivalry ranks among other international enemies. England have a notable dislike of Argentina, but that is secondary to the Englishs hatred of Germany, summed up by the tasteless English chant two world cups and one world war. The first competitive meeting between the football teams was won by England in the 1966 World Cup final, but Germany have recorded notable wins at Italia ’90, Euro ’96 and the 2010 World Cup. England were able to celebrate a 5-1 World Cup qualifying win in 2001, but Germany actually reached the final of that competition and the rivalry has been pretty one way since. 9 2. Algeria v Egypt – When Algeria secured the final African place at the 2010 World Cup at Egypt’s expense in a play-off, riot police in the Egyptian capital Cairo were called into action as trouble flared near the Algerian embassy. Members of the Algerian party were injured when stones were thrown at the team bus during that fiery play-off, while in 1990, Egypt refused to send its team to the Afican Cup of Nations in Algeria. A year before that, when Egypt beat their rivals to the 1990 World Cup, Algeria’s Lakhdar Ballomi allegedly gouged out the eye of Egypt’s team doctor. 9 8. USA v Mexico – Frictions arising from Mexican immigration into the USA form the foundations for this rivalry though Mexico were so dominant early on that they lost only once against their neighbours between 1937 and 1990. As the USA improved, however, the matches have become increasingly competitive. Fans relish the frequent meetings between the sides and often more than 100,000 attend matches in Mexicos Aztec Stadium. Unsavoury incidents include American goalkeeper Brad Friedel reporting bags of urine being thrown at him in 1997 and Mexican authorities alleging Landon Donovan (pictured above scoring against Mexico in the 2002 World Cup) was alleged to have urinated on the pitch during an Olympic qualifying game. When the USA won 2010 World Cup qualifying match 2-0, Mexican assistant coach Paco Ramirez saw fit to slap American midfielder Frankie Hejduk in the aftermath as the teams headed to the dressing rooms.
Aaron Ramsey in action for Arsenal at Bournemouth 1 Aaron Ramsey divided opinion among Arsenal fans during his team’s 2-0 win at Bournemouth.The Welshman’s name was a trending topic during the 90 minutes at Dean Court, with many Gooners tweeting to state their displeasure with his performance.But some Arsenal fans seemed impressed by Ramsey’s showing.Take a look at a selection of the reaction to Ramsey’s display, below, then leave a comment with your thoughts.
Fortuna >> You needed more than just a couple of spare hands to count up the goal scoring opportunities the Fortuna girls soccer team generated Saturday night.The only thing was that they were going just about every direction other than into the back of the net — high, wide, off the post, saved by the opposing goalkeeper.Luckily, with the clock winding down, one of the Huskies’ youngsters prevented frustration from boiling over.Freshman midfielder Aubrie Hall’s putback into a wide-open net …
6 November 2008Following a strategic cooperation agreement between Fifa and the African Union of Broadcasting (AUB), spectators in sub-Saharan Africa will be able to view the 2010 Fifa World Cup free of charge.According to Fifa, the agreement ensures the broadcasting of all 64 World Cup matches live on free-to-air television and radio in 41 African territories in English, French and Portuguese.Fifa has selected the AUB as its partner for the region based on its capacity to reach the largest possible audience, as well as its commitment to broadcasting development and tailored programming and content exchange in sub-Saharan Africa.“The AUB has shown considerable strengths in uniting broadcasters under one umbrella to ensure that all sub-Saharan Africans will be able to have access to the radio and TV coverage of and around the 2010 Fifa World Cup,” Fifa President Sepp Blatter said in Cotonou, Benin, last week.“We always promised that 2010 would be an African World Cup, and with today’s cooperation agreement we have made a big step towards achieving this goal.”‘Win in Africa with Africa’The partnership extends to the coverage of the men’s and youth tournaments to be staged in Africa in 2009 and 2010, as all broadcasters have to meet jointly agreed criteria in the framework of Fifa’s “Win in Africa with Africa” initiative to be eligible for the rights.The criteria covers a range of commercial and technical requirements designed to ensure the development of football’s technical and commercial infrastructure on the African continent far beyond 2010.African production centreFifa and the AUB will also establish an African production centre at the International Broadcast Centre in Johannesburg during the World Cup to ensure customised, high-quality coverage for African viewers.The strategic cooperation agreement also provides for the establishment of the AUB-Fifa Broadcast Academy“It accords with the goals of our union for sustainability and will facilitate the achievement of one of the goals we adopted as legacies for Africa from the world cup in South Africa, namely capacity development of broadcasting in Africa,” said AUB chief executive Lawrence Atiase.“We are fully committed to playing our part, and we thank Fifa for placing their trust in the AUB’s ability to deliver.”Source: BuaNews
Fans in typical headgear made fromplastic hardhats at a match betweennational squad Bafana Bafana and EquatorialGuinea in Pretoria in June 2008. (Image:Chris Kirchhoff, MediaClubSouthAfrica.com.For more photos, visit the image library.) The prepaid ticket card, issued to SouthAfricans who buy their tickets at branchesof First National Bank.(Image: South Africa 2010)Janine ErasmusThe first tranche of tickets for the long-awaited 2010 Fifa World Cup are on sale from today – the first of five buying opportunities, each to be administered differently to give all fans an equal chance of securing tickets.Phase One runs from 20 February until 31 March 2009. In this phase football fans are required to submit an application form for their tickets. There are two ways to do this – first, apply for their tickets online at Fifa’s website by signing up for the Fifa.com Club. This applies to both international and local fans. Alternatively, South African residents may go to any First National Bank (FNB) branch and submit their applications in person.Those applying online must have credit card details ready. Once all applications have been processed, a text message will be sent to all applicants to advise them of the success or failure of their bid. If successful, the relevant credit card must be used to collect printed tickets at stadiums and other designated points in each of the nine host cities. These points will only be operational from April 2010. The total value will be deducted from the credit card only if the application is approved.Those applying at FNB branches must have the funds ready as they will be required to pay upfront. All applicants will receive an FNB Visa Zakumi prepaid card, to the value of the tickets purchased. The green-haired leopard Zakumi is the official mascot of the 2010 sporting spectacle.Again, applicants will receive a text message to advise them whether their bid has been successful or not. If successful, the prepaid card must be used to collect printed tickets at stadiums and other designated points in the nine host cities. If unsuccessful, the money on the card may be used at any Visa retailer in South Africa, or may be refunded at any FNB branch.All applications received during this phase will be processed at the same time, and every fan who registers correctly will have an equal chance, so it makes no difference whether bids are submitted on the first or last day of the phase.If there are more tickets than applications, all applications will succeed and there will be no disappointed fans. If there are more applications than tickets, a random draw scheduled for 15 April 2009 will ensure that tickets are allocated fairly.Phase Two runs from 4 May to 16 November 2009. These applications will be processed on a first come, first served basis, so time will be of the essence.Phase Three runs from 5 December 2009 to 22 January 2010, when tickets will be allocated through a random draw on 1 February of that year.Phase Four runs from 9 February to 7 April 2010. As in Phase Two, tickets will be allocated in the order in which applications are received – the earlier the better.Phase Five runs from 15 April to 11 June 2010, in the last-minute sales phase. Application forms will not be used; instead, tickets may be bought in real time – subject to availability – on the Fifa website and at FNB branches.To watch a video that gives step-by-step instructions on how to apply for your tickets, visit Shine 2010.Package dealTeam-specific tickets (TST) are available for those who wish to closely follow the progress of a specific team. Those wanting to buy TST packages must apply for at least three matches, up to a maximum of seven. These are then guaranteed, even if the team in question is eliminated. Remaining games are not forfeited, as fans may then choose to follow the progress of a team that does make it to the next round.There are four TST packages from which to choose – for instance, a TST3 packages gives access to your team’s three group matches, while a TST4 package means you can attend the three group matches and the next stage game – the round of 16, which is the first of three elimination stages and is followed by the quarter- and semi-finals. A TST7 package means you can attend games right up to the final and third place playoff.Four categoriesFifa 2010 World Cup tickets are available in four categories, and the price depends on the location in the stadium as well as the stage of the tournament. Group games are more affordable than those in the elimination rounds.Category 1 – in the front alongside the pitch;Category 2 – adjacent to Category 1 seats, but in the corners;Category 3 – adjacent to Category 2 tickets, in the corners further up in the stands, or behind the goals;Category 4 – behind the goals.Category 4 tickets are reserved exclusively for South African residents are may only be bought using the local currency. Category 4 applicants must provide proof of residence as a security measure. The remaining three categories are available to all, both local residents and international visitors.Prices range from the cheapest, a R140 ($14) Category 4 group match ticket, to a whopping R6 300 ($632) for a Category 1 ticket alongside the field at the final. The cheapest ticket for the final is Category 4, at R1 050 ($105).Tickets for the opening game are priced from R490 ($49) for Category 4, to R3 150 ($316) for Category 1.Prices, say Fifa, are the lowest for a World Cup in many years, and are better priced than the cheapest tickets for both the Japan/South Korea and the German events.Fans need not worry that fluctuating exchange rates will affect their chances of affording a ticket. For the duration of the World Cup the exchange rate has been fixed at R7 to the dollar. The Local Organising Committee (LOC) will bear the extra cost should the rate go any higher.Hints for supportersWhile LOC CEO Danny Jordaan advises fans to get their applications in early, fans should also remember that the final draw only takes place on 4 December 2009 just before Phase Three of ticket sales. Those who are supporting specific teams may want to first wait to see where their favourites are scheduled to play, in the early rounds at least.“People should remember that they won’t be able to buy a match ticket on the morning of the game or at the gate,” warned Jordaan. “South Africans have to buy their tickets early.”While it may be risky waiting for the draw, fans will rest assured that they will be in the stands when their favourite team takes to the field.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Contact Janine Erasmus at email@example.com.Related articlesWorld Cup fast facts 500 days to 2010 Choppers to curb 2010 crime Useful linksFifaFifa – 2010 World CupSouth Africa 2010First National Bank Preliminary match schedule (pdf)
1 February 2013 While 57 rhinos have been killed by poachers in South Africa this year, 18 suspected poachers have been arrested and three fatally wounded as the authorities step up their enforcement activities. Forty-two rhinos were poached in the Kruger National Park, six in KwaZulu-Natal, six in North West, two in Limpopo and one in Mpumalanga province, according to the latest data released by the Department of Environmental Affairs. The department cited the recent floods in the Kruger National Park, thick summer vegetation, two weeks of a full moon, and aggressive incursions from Mozambique as some of the factors contributing to the spike in poaching. Despite the floods that have left large parts of the park inaccessible to vehicles and rangers on foot, the area was still being patrolled with the assistance of helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. Eleven of the 18 suspected poachers arrested this year were arrested in the park, while three were arrested in Limpopo province following a tip-off about their activities in Kruger, and two were arrested in North West province. Despite increased incursions from Mozambique, particularly in the Limpopo Transfrontier Park region in the north of the Kruger National Park, South African National Parks (SANParks) CEO David Mabunda said their anti-poaching operations were starting to yield results. “We bled in December, but as of January 1 there has been a change in strategy from a conservation management system to greater law enforcement, and this is working,” Mabunda said. “Our operations are more militaristic. The number of poachers arrested has increased inside and outside the park.” Six suspected poachers were arrested and seven rhino horns recovered, along with heavy calibre hunting rifles, ammunition and poaching equipment, during three operations in the Kruger National Park on 18 and 19 January. Since last Friday, a further six suspected poachers had been arrested and two fatally wounded by South African and Mozambican authorities. All were armed. Last week, anti-poaching operatives in the Houtbosrand section of the park were involved in a shootout with two suspected poachers at the site of a freshly killed rhino. One of the suspects was fatally wounded, while the other managed to escape back to Mozambique. A heavy calibre hunting rifle, ammunition and the rhino’s horn were recovered. An intelligence-driven operation on same day resulted in the arrest of two more suspected rhino poachers by the Mozambican authorities inside Mozambique, adjacent to Houtbosrand. The group was allegedly on its way to the Kruger National Park when its members were arrested. A heavy calibre rifle and ammunition were recovered. And this Wednesday, joint forces were again involved in a shootout with armed suspected poachers in the Houtbosrand area. One of the suspects was wounded and arrested, while his two accomplices managed to escape back to Mozambique. A heavy calibre hunting rifle and ammunition were recovered. The Department of Environmental Affairs has congratulated SANParks’ anti-poaching units, the police and the South African National Defence Force for their recent successes. South Africans are urged to report any information or tip-offs that they may have in relation to rhino poaching to the anonymous tip-off lines 0800 205 005, 08600 10111, or CrimeLine on 32211. Source: SANews.gov.za
marshall kirkpatrick Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Tags:#Analysis#web Related Posts The Library of Congress added a number of ambitious new exceptions to the Digital Millenium Copyright Act’s prohibition of breaking copyright technologies today, most notably concerning iPhone jailbreaking and unlocking. The Library adds and renews exceptions every 3 years and as Sarah Perez argued this morning, these ones go well beyond the iPhone.I’d like to take this opportunity to celebrate “fair use,” the general principle that copyrighted materials can legitimately be used by other parties, without payment, within reasonable limits. It’s not just legally acceptable, it’s a paradigm that could provide a foundation for a richer, fairer, better future for everyone.The Library of Congress validated some key instances of fair use today, concerning DVDs, eBooks and mobile phones. Other instances remain legally unsupported. The general principal, though, is one that ought to be expanded in the interests of innovation, democratization and economic growth. Fair use is essential in a post-scarcity world, which is what the digital world is fast becoming.What is Fair Use?In determining whether an action constitutes fair use, four factors are taken into consideration by the legal decision makers, according to the Stanford University Library’s explanation.the purpose and character of your use – Are you adding value by adding new expression, meaning, new information, new aesthetics, new insights or understandings?the nature of the copyrighted work – Factual information is more acceptable to copy than fiction, published info more than as yet unpublished info.the amount and substantiality of the portion taken – Did you take a lot of what was copied, the heart of it? Unless you’re doing parody, taking the heart of a work is not acceptable.the effect of the use upon the potential market – Does your copying deprive the copyright owner of income? This was key to the iPhone ruling, as the Library said that people have to buy iPhones before they jailbreak them.Why see those factors as criteria for permissible exceptions when they could be treated as a blueprint for a big new sector of economic activity?For more in-depth discussion of how these four considerations played out in today’s rulings in particular, see Ars Technica’s coverage. More good analysis is available from the LA Times.Note that as has been pointed out in comments below, today’s news is far from an indication that an economy based on adding value to existing work. The limitations on commercial re-use of content under fair use, for example, are a major obstacle that remains. But it could and should be a start.Why Fair Use Grows More Important Every DayFor most of history, the objects of economic transactions have been physical, expensive to produce and valuable because of their scarcity. While in many of the most important parts of the human experience that’s still true, it’s no longer true when it comes to culture and the communication of ideas.A company certainly can spend a whole lot of money producing cultural artifacts and limit their availability in order to charge a high price. But that’s no longer the only way that substantial value can be created.Fair use is a lubricant for an explosive new type of economic and cultural activity. On this day when a few more high-profile holes have been made in the dam, let’s get excited about what this paradigm means for the future.From content remixes to APIs to lightweight social media creativity marathons like the recent Old Spice YouTube videos (see “How the Old Spice Videos Are Being Made“), a whole lot of value these days is created by mashing up content from disparate sources and adding a dollop of originality on top. It’s cheap, it’s fast and it can be very effective. The world needs more of it. Legal decisions, like today’s, need to be made to facilitate more of it.Further, what are the most potent engines of economic activity and creativity the web sees today? It’s not the production of discrete items of value, it’s the creation of development platforms. No one company can create as much value as a whole empowered ecosystem of distributed, independent developers working on a platform. Likewise, few developers can build as much value independent of a big platform as they can with one. A development platform is a foundation that commoditizes things like scale, basic infrastructure and distribution.What if a company wants to keep control over its platform, limit developer access, etc.? According to the Library of Congress today, in the case of mobile phones at least, the consumer has every right to break that control in order to make software developed for the machine they purchased truly interoperable.It’s a value-added, remixed, platform-built economy these days. That’s a whole new channel opening up for innovation, the democratization of the economy and for revenue creation. Does it cannibalize the old economy? Not if the experience of two of history’s fastest-growing platform dynamos (iPhone and Facebook) are any indication. This digital economy could be called post-scarcity not because scarcity is no longer realistic or valuable, but because it’s no longer a precondition for the creation of value. In fact, scarcity may produce less total value in the future than the ecosystem of augmentation, annotation, remixing and fair use of the items formerly considered scarce will.When there is a legal safe zone for these types of value-adding economic activities, that could open up the floodgates to all the more of it. The people at Creative Commons say the benefit of clear conditions for re-use communicated ahead of time is that it facilitates far more re-use than would happen if people wanting to re-use content were slowed down by having to ask for permission each time. Something similar could be said about fair use.Fair use is a lubricant for an explosive new type of economic and cultural activity. On this day when a few more high-profile holes have been made in the dam, let’s get excited about what this paradigm means for the future.Photo of DJ Future from Phil Campbell. Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai…